2. 不宜设EXCEPT，NOT TRUE题，或出现Both A and B，All of the above is true选项。
A new study says electronic toys are not helping babies learn."Even if companies are marketing them as educational, they're not teaching the babies anything at this time," said the study's author, Anna Sosa. She is a Northern Arizona University professor who heads the school's Child Speech and Language Lab.
Sosa and her fellow researchers listened to audio recordings of parents playing with their babies -- aged 10 months to 16 months. The researchers compared the experiences when the children played with electronic toys, traditional toys such as blocks, or when the children looked at books.What they found is that parents talked less with their babies when the babies played with electronic toys."The parents talked less, responded less and used fewer content specific words," Sosa said.
Why is this important?Sosa said research shows that how quickly children develop language is often based on what they hear from parents.When the infants played with electronic toys, parents said little to their children, Sosa said.But with traditional toys, such as blocks, parents shared the names and descriptions of the animals, colors and shapes as their children played, Sosa said.There was even more information given by parents as their babies looked at the pictures in books, Sosa said.Sosa is not telling parents to throw out electronic toys. But she said parents should look at their infants' play with such toys as entertainment, not a learning experience.
Toy Industry Association spokeswoman Adrienne Appell responded to the study. She said it is important that parents make time to play with their children."Playing is a way that kids can learn so much, not only cognitive skills, but social and developmental skills," she said.She added that play should be balanced, including time for just "make believe" activities, as well as traditional and electronic toys.
Now what do you think about educational toys for children?
21.Children develop language more quickly when their parents __________.
A. buy them a lot of toys
B. ask children to listen to electronic toys
C. read them picture books often
D. throw away their electronic toys
22. From this passage we can learn that _____________ .
A. parents’ talk helps baby to learn language quickly
B. playing with electronic toys is a kind of learning experience
C. Sona advised parents to throw away electronic toys
D. parents talked more when the babies played with electronic toys
23. What’s Anna Sosa’s attitude towards companies claiming that their toys are educational?
A. supportive B. doubtful
C. uninterested D. indifferent
There's a long-known relationship between cancer and sugar, but figuring out exactly how it works has proven difficult . Now, thanks to a nine-year research project, scientists have made a breakthrough.They've narrowed down how cancer cells metabolize(代谢）sugar.The focus of the new research was on a metabolic effect that has been understood for over 90 years.
We know that almost all the cells in the human body require energy, and they receive this energy from the sugars in the food we eat. Cancer cells also require sugars to grow. But their glucose(葡萄糖） intake is a lot higher than that of healthy cells.This is known as the Warburg effect（瓦博格效应）, and it may, scientists have supposed, have something to do with cancer's rapid growth rate. But it's hard to determine whether the Warburg effect is a symptom or a cause of cancer.
It's been proposed that the growth of cancer cells may be affected by starving them of sugar, but the problem with that is that there's currently no method of cutting off the supply to cancer cells while keeping it open to normal cells.This is why the biological mechanism behind the increased glucose metabolism is important. It may be the key to starving cancer cells while keeping healthy cells functioning. We're not there yet, but this research brings us a critical step closer.
"Our research reveals how the sugar consumption of cancer cells leads to a bad cycle because of the continued stimulation of cancer growth," said researcher Johan Thevelein in Belgium.This link between sugar and cancer has sweeping consequences. Our results provide a foundation for future research in this area, which can now be performed with a much more precise and relevant focus."
"The findings are not sufficient to identify the primary cause of the Warburg effect," the researchers added. "Further research is needed to find out whether this primary cause is also conserved in yeast cells."
24. When did the focus on the metabolic effect possibly begin?
A.1920 B.1920s C.2009 D.2010s
25. Which statement is true about Warburg effect?
A. The glucose intake of cancer cells is more than healthy ones.
B. Warburg effect is a symptom or a cause of cancer.
C. Warburg effect is closely related to cancer’s rapid growth.
D. Cancer cells grows faster than healthy cells.
26. The biological mechanism is important because_____________.
A. It is the key to keeping healthy cells functioning.
B. The growth of cancer cells is affected by starving them of sugar.
C. The biological mechanism is behind the increased glucose metabolism.
D. It is difficult to cut off the supply to cancer cells while feeding normal cells.
27. From Johan Thevelein, we can learn ____________.
A. The results are precise about the cancer growth.
B. The research has found the primary cause of cancer growth.
C. The findings are not enough to find out the primary cause of Warburg effect.
D. The primary cause is also conserved in yeast cells.
The cost of attending university in the United States has risen quickly in the past 20 years. Many people today say they owe huge amounts of money for loans they received for higher education. The students past and present say they are in heavy debt after going to university.
Movie maker Andrew Rossi examines education debt in the film Ivory Tower(象牙塔）. The documentary（纪录片） was released to movie theaters recently. Ivory Tower is often used in America to mean university or college. Andrew Rossi wrote, directed and produced Ivory Tower.He says college tuition, the cost of attending classes increased by about 1,100 percent between 1978 and today. It is estimated that the nations owed debt for student loans at 1 trillion dollars at present.
One comment made by a woman in Ivory Tower shows the deep concern that student loans can cause. But one young man in the Washington D.C. area says he does not face much worry about college costs. Brandon Attilis says his parents prepaid his tuition, he is working this summer at a restaurant in Alexandria, Virginia. Mr. Attilis also plans to reduce his expenses by sharing a house with two friends.His mother Chris Attilis says she and her husband began saving money for college tuition shortly after each of their children was born.
Still, many families lack enough money to do that. The movie notes that there have been reductions in government aid for education. Some colleges also build beautiful but costly campuses in hopes of getting students to attend. But the building projects can also increase costs for students.Ms. Attilis visited colleges with Brandon. "They put on a good show.” And walking through and looking at the wonderful bathrooms, I'm thinking, 'This is not what it was looking like when I went to school.'" Chris said.
Ivory Tower suggests that many students choose not to get a traditional college education because of the costs. Some try online education. Brandon Attilis however says online education is not for everyone.
"You have to be a real hard worker, you have to really want it," Brandon said. He says he hopes that his own schooling will lead to a good business education and a good career,and hopes it will not include huge debt built at the so-called ivory towers of education.
28. According to Brandon Attilis, which one is right?
A. He paid his college education through his own efforts.
B. He plans to save money by sharing a house with two friends.
C. He needn’t worry about his college costs at all.
D. His parents both have college education.
29. From the fourth and fifth paragraph, we can infer___________.
A. The government did nothing to help college education.
B. Online education is not a good way to receive education.
C. A good college education will lead to a good career.
D. The beautiful campuses and building projects add costs to the college tuition.
30.The underlined word “released”in paragraph two means____________
A.set free B.put on C.come out D. shot
31.Which is the best title of the passage?
A.Ivory Tower' heavy cost of US education
B.The heavy debt of universities in the United States.
C.Walking through the universities in the United States.
D.Who is to blame for high cost in the universities in the United States?
A new study on pain management around the world has shocked researchers. The study found that many people in poor and middle-income countries suffer unimaginable pain without any help. They lack even the cheapest painkillers to manage severe pain. The results of this study has led to action. Researchers now want to find ways to help the millions of people who suffer needlessly.
Felicia Knaul is one of the researchers involved in the study. She is a professor at the University of Miami’s School of Medicine. She says that around 61 million people worldwide live and some die in great pain because of a lack of pain medicine and proper care. She says she became interested in global pain management after her own surgery for breast cancer. She says that when she realized how inexpensive it could be to help people suffering in pain, she felt the need to act. "When I thought about other women going through this, when I thought about children, burn victims have their wounds dressed and cleaned without pain relief, and then when I found out how inexpensive it is to solve this problem, a real win-win in global health --- that was when we really decided to move forward."
Knaul led the international study on pain relief published in The Lancet. She explains that the researchers looked at worldwide access to a common pain medication, morphine（吗啡）.But more than 100 countries could satisfy less than 30 percent of need for pain relief just for palliative care alone. And, in fact, the vast majority have almost nothing." In the United States, morphine costs three cents per dose. In low-income countries, it costs five times as much.
However, it is usually not available. If the cost of morphine were the same for all countries, the study found that it would cost $145 million to make pain relief available for all. Developing countries can work to narrow -- what researchers are calling -- the “pain gap.” Uganda is one example. Its government makes and distributes morphine for the country's hospitals. Doctors are trained in giving the drug and patients are monitored. Knaul has asked the World Bank to help end the pain gap. Experts are still developing plans. But the goal is clear: to provide pain relief for the millions of people who truly need it.
32.What contributes to the action of research on painkillers?
A. All countries in the world lack the painkillers.
B. The results of a new study on pain management has shocked researchers.
C. Many people who are in poor countries can’t get help when they are in pain,
D. The researchers want to find ways to help people who suffer needlessly.
33.According to paragraph two, which statement is true about Felicia Knaul?
A. She thinks that about 61 million people die from great pain every year.
B. She thinks that it is not hard to get painkillers to help people.
C. She started to do this before his surgery for breast cancer.
D. She has become interested in painkillers since he suffered from breast cancer.
34. What can we infer from the last paragraph?
A. The World Bank has helped Uganda end the pain gap.
B. Developing countries are not able to narrow the “pain gap”.
C. Uganda is a successful example of solving ‘pain gap’.
D. It will cost $145 million to make painkillers available for all countries.
35.What does the passage probably from?
A. Travel brochure B.Medical report
C. Science fiction D.Health journal
As we all know, good health is more important than wealth!Developing good habits in life could help us to stay fitter and longer, say experts. 36
1.Take a cold shower
According to the experts, a cold shower puts stress on the body, working like exercise to stimulate it. Scientists found that shivering（颤抖）stimulates the conversion of energy-storing “white fat” into energy-burning “brown fat”.
Missing just 30 minutes of sleep per day on weekdays can lead to obesity, say scientists. Because of social and work commitments, people often accumulate sleep debt during weekdays and make up for lost sleep over the weekend, which is bad for our body in the long run.
3.Take a regular blood test
One of the main risky factors of cardiovascular disease is high levels of low-density in blood, which can cause fatty material to build up in artery(动脉) walls. “Knowing your lipid（血脂） levels can really motivate you to make the changes to diet and exercise to decrease the risk of cardiovascular（心血管） disease. 38 So we human should take blood test regularly.
4.Drink more coffee
A few major studies have now shown that the people who drink the most coffee have the lowest risk of dying from several common diseases.Concerning stubborn diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes disease, we still have no effective way to treat them. 39
5.Eat an egg a day
Eating eggs was usually thought to cause high cholesterol. But now official advice from the British Heart Foundation says eating up to one egg a day does not increase heart-disease risk in healthy individuals, and can form part of a healthy diet.
In short,health is of great importance in our life and there are many ways of keeping healthy .
A. Don’t get into sleep debt.
B. Develop a habit of deep sleep.
C. Regular testing can help understand how specific changes to diet and your body state.
D. They also explain why and offer other simple but effective health habits for us to follow.
E. We should keep in mind that good habits can help you keep healthy.
F. Only by developing good living habits and sticking on doing them day after day can we really keep us healthy forever.
G. However, a new Spanish study has found that higher coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of death of those diseases.
第三部分 英语知识应用 (共两节，满分45分)
阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的四个选项(A、 B、C 和 D)中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
I used to believe courtesy（礼貌） was a thing of the past. Very seldom have I____41____such a courteous human being in this modern era.
Recently, I had to ____42____ my thinking, when I came face to face with just such a human being in a coffee place, with my two ______43____. The place was crowded as usual and we had to ____44____steep(陡峭)stairs in order to find a ____45____ table. After enjoying coffee and snacks, we went down the ____46____ stairs, where there was hardly any space for another person to either climb up or come down.
Just as I was in the middle of the stairs, a gentleman entered the main entrance of the restaurant which was ___47____ in front of the staircase(楼梯). I was sure I would be ___48____roughly by this man going up. I kept coming down as ___49___ as I could. My daughters were already down, ____50____at me worriedly, hoping I would reach them ___51___the stranger started walking up the stairs, knowing I was a nervous sort.
Nearly reaching them, I noticed the man still standing near the door. I reached my daughters and ___52___ the stranger at the entrance door which he kept ___53___ open. I looked back thinking he was still at the door, ___54___ whether to go in or find another less crowded place. I saw him going up the stairs, two at a time. I told my daughters about it and all three of us felt ___55___ that we did not even____56___the courteous gentleman who was ___57____ holding the door open for us ladies to pass before going up.
Such ____58____ people are hard to find these days, when pushing is very ___59____ in our advanced but aggressive society. We applauded for his chivalry(骑士精神).Till today, I remember this gentleman____60____ and pray to God to make more human beings like him.
41. A.encouraged B.encountered C.watched D.heard
42. A.change B.exchange C.improve D.continue
43. A.sons B.cousinsC.daughtersD.sisters
50. A.looking downB.looking upC.looking forwardD.looking back
52. A.passed throughB.passed downC.passed awayD.passed by
第三部分 英语知识运用 （ 共两节，满分45分）（共10小题；每小题1.5分，满分15分）
Foreign Language can Slow Down Aging
New research published in Annals of Neurology _____61___(reveal) that people who speak two ___62___ more languages -- even those who learned the second language as adults -- may slow down cognitive(认知)decline from aging.
For the study, researchers relied on data from 835 native speakers of English ____63___ were born and living in the area of Edinburgh, Scotland. The participants were given an intelligence test in 1947 at age 11 and then again in ___64___early 70s, between 2008 and 2010.
Findings indicate that those who spoke two or more languages had ______65_____(significant) better cognitive abilities ______66____ (compare) to what would be expected from their baseline. The strongest effects were seen in general intelligence and reading. The effects were evident no matter when the second language was learned.
Another study of bilingualism(双语） in 2013 found that bilingual patients suffer dementia onset an average of 4.5 years later than those ____67____(speak) only one language.
But adults aren't the only ones who benefit ____68____ learning a new language. A study in 2012 found certain brain functions to be enhanced in teens who are fluent in more than one language. Bilingual youth tend to be better than monolingual (单一语言的）____69__(kid) at multitasking. They also are ____70___(good) at focusing on something, even when there's lots of noise around them.
第四部分 写作 （共两节，满分35分）
One day last month,a group of American student arrived in Shanghai.I was one of them.After say goodbye to my dear parents at Newyork Airport,I started my long journey.That was my first journey abroad!How exciting I felt when I got on board.We left Shanghai to Taierzhuang Ancient Town to pay a visit,largest Ancient Town in China.From there we took a bus to Beijing,that is the capital city of China.We were exchange students and send to the country by their government to learn Chinese in Beijing for twelve months.From the first few lessons,we found the teachers there really worked hardly,and I am sure of everything will go well in the next months.
补充词汇：中国书法 Chinese Calligraphy 书法家calligrapher
注意： 1.词数100左右； 2.可以适当增加细节，以使行文连贯。
21. C. 根据第三段Sosa said research shows that how quickly children develop language is often based on what they hear from parents.可以看出，孩子语言发展的快慢取决于他们从父母身上听到的。所以C项比较吻合。
22. A. 根据第二、三段可以看出，孩子语言的发展与父母的说话多少有很大关系，故A项合适。
23. B. 根据第一段Even if companies are marketing them as educational, they're not teaching the babies anything at this time,及整篇文章内容可知Sosa对玩具公司的观点持怀疑反对的态度。
24.B 细节理解题。根据第一段最后一句The focus of the new research was on a metabolic effect that has been understood for over 90 years.可知，这项关于代谢效应的研究已经被关注九十多年了。所以，开始的时间应该在20世纪20年代。
25.A 细节理解题。根据第二段 But their glucose(葡萄糖） intake is a lot higher than that of healthy cells.可以看出，癌细胞的葡萄糖摄入量远大于正常细胞。故选A项。
26.D细节理解题。根据第三段but the problem with that is that there's currently no method of cutting off the supply to cancer cells while keeping it open to normal cells.可以这种生物机制很重要是因为目前没有办法在保证正常细胞运转的同时切断癌细胞的能量供应。故选D项。
27.C 细节理解题。根据最后一段The findings are not sufficient to identify the primary cause of the Warburg effect.可知这些研究发现目前不足以证实瓦博格效应的首要原因。故选择C项。
28. B细节理解题。根据第三段Mr. Attilis also plans to reduce his expenses by sharing a house with two friends.可得到答案B。
29.D 推理判断题。根据第四段Some colleges also build beautiful but costly campuses in hopes of getting students to attend. But the building projects can also increase costs for students.可得出答案D。
30.B 词义猜测题。根据上下文语意，release在这里是“上映（put on）”的意思。
32.B 细节理解题。根据第一段They lack even the cheapest painkillers to manage severe pain. The results of this study has led to action.他们缺少最便宜的止痛药来缓解疼痛。这个研究结果导致了研究人员的研究行动。可以得出答案B吻合。
33.D 细节理解题。根据第二段She says she became interested in global pain management after her own surgery for breast cancer.她说她在做了乳腺癌手术后才开始感兴趣的。可以得出答案D。
34.C 推理判断题。根据最后一段Developing countries can work to narrow -- what researchers are calling -- the “pain gap.” Uganda is one example. 发展中国家在努力缩小这个“疼痛差距”，乌干达就是一例。所以答案为C。
36.D. 根据上文say experts及下文内容可知D项与此处匹配。
37.A. 根据空后的内容及关键词sleep debt等的提示可知A项与之匹配。
38.C. 根据上下文关键词blood test及上文内容的提示可以看出C项与之匹配。
50.B。考查动词短语辨析，look down向下看；look up向上看；look forward向前看；look back向后看。句意：我的女儿们已经下来了，他们抬头看着我（下楼）。故选择B项。
52.D。考查动词短语词义辨析，pass through从里面穿过；pass down传承；pass away去世；pass by 从身边经过。句意：我到达女儿们身边并且经过一直为我保持入门开放的这位陌生人。故选择D项。
61.reveals; 考查谓语动词，此句主语New research为单数，根据文意，应用一般现在时，所以答案为reveals.
63.who/that;考查从句，此处为定语从句，先行词为native speakers, 从句缺主语，所以用who/that.
64.their； 考查代词, 固定搭配in one’s 70s,意为“在某人70多岁的时候”，逻辑主语为The participants,故用their.
70.better考查形容词比较级，根据上下文语意，此处应用比较级，be better at...更擅长...。
1.student--students 考查名词 a group of 后接可数名词复数
2.say--saying 考查动词 after为介词，后接doing.
3.exciting--excited 考查形容词 此句中该形容词作I feel 的表语，修饰人。
4.to--for 考查介词 leave sp. for sp. 表示“离开某地去某地”
5.largest前加the 考查冠词 最高级前应加the.
6.that--which 考查定语从句 此为非限制定语从句，缺主语，不能用that 引导。
7.send--sent 考查时态 此处与and前的were保持一致。
8.their--our 考查代词 结合语意，此处应该用our.
9.hardly--hard 考查副词 hard可以做副词，意为“努力地”，而hardly意为“几乎不”。
10.去掉sure后的of或者把of改为that 考查连词 be sure后为句子，不能用of.
How are you? Glad to see you have made some progress in Chinese learning and I’m writing to tell you something about our lecture on Chinese Calligraphy. The lecture will be given from 3 pm to 5 pm on the afternoon of next Friday in the school hall. In the lecture, you will mainly learn Chinese Calligraphy, which reflects traditional Chinese culture and is deeply loved by Chinese people. You can feel the beauty of Chinese Calligraphy by learning it. You’d better make full preparations before the lecture and have a brief understanding of the history of Chinese Calligraphy and famous calligraphers, which makes it easy for you to understand it. If there is anything that I can help you, please don’t hesitate to tell me.
Looking forward to meeting you.
Yours sincerely,Li Hua