去他喵的破听力

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1

讲了二次工业革命的事情,主要是因为工业革命给 workers 带来了一些变故, unskil 的工作机器都能做了,然后工业革命给经历了第一次工业革命的国家带来的变故,煤矿开采越来越少了因为有了 engine 然后工业革命带来了不仅是纺织业还有其他行业的发展,连家务活都能用机器做,最后说的是工业革命在美国福克斯公司生产线的体现,工人开始做一些不用动脑子的工作

 

2

讲了有社会化结构的昆虫,这种结构让他们内部分工效率最大化,虽然有的作为 labor寿命短也不生孩子但是对其他后代有很大的帮助是非常无私的。然后这种结构还可以让他们同时监督领地内外的工作活动,信息传递更快,找到食物以后搬回来更快。这种社会化结构的昆虫包括蚂蚁蜜蜂只占有所有昆虫 species的2%但是确 dominant。最后举了两种蚂蚁作为例子,一个是用叶子做巢一个是可以打败其他小动物的蚂蚁。

 

3

讲了一个PEME貌似是这个时期的海洋变化,里面的碳原子比例变了,有科学家猜测是因为甲烷大量从海底释放,(这里有个问题是要很多很多的甲烷才能导致这样的结果)这种固态甲烷像冰一样,只能特定的 pressure 和温度下存在,所以就开始猜测什么原因导致他的释放,有人说海底升温,还有两个其他的猜测我忘了,不过都有问题,不能支持。所以这个甲烷释放的理论还有待考证。

 

4

美索不达米亚和埃及 city states之类的

主要讲了两个地方有什么不同埃及近尼罗河不需要争夺资源没入侵墙拿来划分区域

 

5

Milankovitch Cycles and glaciation(17年10月)

有人提出造成冰川的原因,三个因素组成,1是地球轨道的形状,当地球转到一个时间点,温度很温和的时候,夏天就会有更少的冰川的融化。2地轴的角度,3地球的Woba,他们只会改变平均水平,当冬天和夏天变得温和的时候,冰川就形成了,别人质疑他,因为地球会这样周期变化好久,因为冰川应该按照周期发生,但是冰川的形成实质上美欧这么周期( periodica|)频繁的发生。有人觉得这是太阳辐射减少的原因,有人觉得这是火山灰挡住光线导致温度降低的原因,但是火山喷发时间更冰川形成的时间没有关系

 

6

讲动物的 resting stage

先说种子 germinate在冬天快结束时开始动物有红袋鼠和某种蟾蜍挖沙漠找阴暗潮湿的地方躲干燥环境在下雨时交配繁殖

 

7

新的能源的出现对工业产生的影响和变革。蒸汽和煤被取代,工厂更集中工业更机械化

 

8

火星曾经有没有水,NASA等机构到探测器在火星上开展的一系列发现其水源地的研究

 

9

新大陆移民交易对印第安人生活的影响


1

讲habit的,说habit是自动的反应在context下面。教授自己买咖啡的例子。说咖啡店就是context,说一看到context就想喝咖啡。然后后来教授主要讨论怎么能改变habit,就是两点,一个是intention好像,还有一个就是改变context(比如教授以后该路线上班,就不喝咖啡了)

 

2

有一个说火山的,夏威夷是五个火山形成的,文章里说的那个是一个,而且还超级大,我们星系里面最大的在火星

 

3

数学?其实跟数学半毛钱关系没有(听说数学都爆炸了,反正就是考了数学)

 

4

Portrait认知错误。Vermeer的girl with pearl earring

 

5

和建筑有关的。一个是zigzag材料贵线条正正方方的, 一个是strainlin材料合成,用玻璃啊什么的多

 

6

美国建筑history

 

7

天文学 某个asteroid 以及后来和地球的关系

 

8

学生要到museum里volunteer

 

9

老师想让学生辅导其他学生做writing tutor

 

10

对莎士比亚authorship的质疑

 

11

讨论学生的非洲paper

 

12

学生要转专业

 

13

噪音污染对鸟类影响

 

14

雷达探测技术



三选一 newspaper加一个模块内容

tips and advisor about student travel; 

restaurant review;

film recommendation


学校应该教学生moral values吗


学校宣布不再赞助小cub(少于十个人)to save money 而且觉得人少没必要存在。女的不同意,觉得学校给club的fund没那么多,省不了钱,然后人少但感情更长久


holiday paradox做新事情的时候感觉时间过得很快随后回忆觉得很慢


女生买了演唱会门票座位但两pa人座位没有安排到一起改了之后座位在一起但没那么近舞台所以纠结


termite mound白蚁窝对ecosystem环境的 benefit动物是对动物提供 height去侦查。例子cashmere cat(羊绒猫?我爱的d)可以爬上去帮同伴观察植物是可以让雨水渗透泥土 retain water例子的话沙漠里有白蚁窝的会茂盛 green没有的地方 brown and dry




 综合写作 

Reading 


Orcas are large predatory whales whose typical coloration is mostly black with some white patches. In recent years, however, sightings of an unusual, almost completely white orca have been reported in the northern Pacific Ocean. One sighting of a white orca occurred near Alaska in 2000. Another sighting of a white orca—nicknamed “Iceberg” by scientists—was made off the coast of Russia in 2010. Because a white orca is so unusual, some scientists have suggested that Iceberg, the whale seen off the coast of Russia, was the same animal as the orca seen earlier near Alaska. However, there are convincing arguments that Iceberg and the Alaskan white orca are actually two different individuals. 


Slight Coloration Differences
First, although all the photographs made during the sightings show very light-colored animals, the orca seen in Alaska appears to be just slightly darker than Iceberg. Such differences in coloration suggest that these were two distinct animals that were independently sighted in the northern Pacific. 


Sightings Far Apart
Second, the sightings were very far apart. The Alaskan orca was seen near the central Aleutian Islands, a long string of islands that extends westward from the mainland of Alaska. Iceberg was seen near the Commander Islands, off the coast of Russia. More than 1,500 kilometers separate the two locations. Typically, orcas tend to stay near the mainland coast and not travel such long distances. 


Age Estimates
Third, when scientists saw the Alaskan white orca in 2000, they estimated that it was around twenty years old, based on the size of its dorsal (back) fin. When researchers saw Iceberg, their estimate of its age, based on the fin size, was also around twenty years—but that was in 2010, when the Alaskan orca would have been thirty! The estimates again suggest quite strongly that these are two different individuals. 

 

Listening 


Despite what the reading says, it’s perfectly possible that the white orca called ‘Iceberg’ by Russian scientists is in fact the same individual that was spotted earlier near Alaska. 


For one thing, the exact color of an Orca’s skin can change a bit from season to season. The reason for this is algae. Algae are small plant organisms that grow on whale skin during some parts of the year. Algae growth would make white skin look a bit darker. The Alaskan sighting occurred during a different season than the Russian sighting, so if we take into account the seasonal variation in algae growth it could have been the same whale seen both times, only one time it was covered with more algae than the other time. 


Second, about the distance problem. It’s important to know that Orca’s live in groups that have different lifestyles. Some groups hunt mammals, while other groups hunt fish. The mammal-eating Orcas tend to stay near coastlines and not migrate far, just like the reading said. However, scientists have determined that Iceberg belongs to a fish-hunting group. Fish-hunting Orcas follow migrating fish and can travel over 2000 kilometers in the open ocean, so it wouldn’t have been unusual for Iceberg to travel between Alaska and Russia. 


Third, age estimates based on the size of the dorsal fin are not necessarily accurate. You see, after an Orca reaches 20 years of age its dorsal fin, doesn’t grow anymore, so when scientists see an Orca with a fully grown dorsal fin, that Orca could be 20 years old, but it could also be 25 or 30 years old, so Iceberg could easily have been older than the scientists estimated, which means it could have been the same Orca as the one seen in Alaska earlier. 


 独立写作 


假如你马上面临大学毕业要选final course,会选以前上过课的老师的课还是没有上过课的老师的课

我是趴趴老阿姨!

爱你们!

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