讲了二次工业革命的事情,主要是因为工业革命给 workers 带来了一些变故, unskil 的工作机器都能做了,然后工业革命给经历了第一次工业革命的国家带来的变故,煤矿开采越来越少了因为有了 engine 然后工业革命带来了不仅是纺织业还有其他行业的发展,连家务活都能用机器做,最后说的是工业革命在美国福克斯公司生产线的体现,工人开始做一些不用动脑子的工作
讲了有社会化结构的昆虫,这种结构让他们内部分工效率最大化,虽然有的作为 labor寿命短也不生孩子但是对其他后代有很大的帮助是非常无私的。然后这种结构还可以让他们同时监督领地内外的工作活动,信息传递更快,找到食物以后搬回来更快。这种社会化结构的昆虫包括蚂蚁蜜蜂只占有所有昆虫 species的2%但是确 dominant。最后举了两种蚂蚁作为例子,一个是用叶子做巢一个是可以打败其他小动物的蚂蚁。
讲了一个PEME貌似是这个时期的海洋变化,里面的碳原子比例变了,有科学家猜测是因为甲烷大量从海底释放,(这里有个问题是要很多很多的甲烷才能导致这样的结果)这种固态甲烷像冰一样,只能特定的 pressure 和温度下存在,所以就开始猜测什么原因导致他的释放,有人说海底升温,还有两个其他的猜测我忘了,不过都有问题,不能支持。所以这个甲烷释放的理论还有待考证。
美索不达米亚和埃及 city states之类的
Milankovitch Cycles and glaciation（17年10月）
讲动物的 resting stage
Portrait认知错误。Vermeer的girl with pearl earring
天文学 某个asteroid 以及后来和地球的关系
tips and advisor about student travel；
学校宣布不再赞助小cub(少于十个人)to save money 而且觉得人少没必要存在。女的不同意，觉得学校给club的fund没那么多，省不了钱，然后人少但感情更长久
termite mound白蚁窝对ecosystem环境的 benefit动物是对动物提供 height去侦查。例子cashmere cat(羊绒猫?我爱的d)可以爬上去帮同伴观察植物是可以让雨水渗透泥土 retain water例子的话沙漠里有白蚁窝的会茂盛 green没有的地方 brown and dry
Orcas are large predatory whales whose typical coloration is mostly black with some white patches. In recent years, however, sightings of an unusual, almost completely white orca have been reported in the northern Pacific Ocean. One sighting of a white orca occurred near Alaska in 2000. Another sighting of a white orca—nicknamed “Iceberg” by scientists—was made off the coast of Russia in 2010. Because a white orca is so unusual, some scientists have suggested that Iceberg, the whale seen off the coast of Russia, was the same animal as the orca seen earlier near Alaska. However, there are convincing arguments that Iceberg and the Alaskan white orca are actually two different individuals.
Slight Coloration Differences First, although all the photographs made during the sightings show very light-colored animals, the orca seen in Alaska appears to be just slightly darker than Iceberg. Such differences in coloration suggest that these were two distinct animals that were independently sighted in the northern Pacific.
Sightings Far Apart Second, the sightings were very far apart. The Alaskan orca was seen near the central Aleutian Islands, a long string of islands that extends westward from the mainland of Alaska. Iceberg was seen near the Commander Islands, off the coast of Russia. More than 1,500 kilometers separate the two locations. Typically, orcas tend to stay near the mainland coast and not travel such long distances.
Age Estimates Third, when scientists saw the Alaskan white orca in 2000, they estimated that it was around twenty years old, based on the size of its dorsal (back) fin. When researchers saw Iceberg, their estimate of its age, based on the fin size, was also around twenty years—but that was in 2010, when the Alaskan orca would have been thirty! The estimates again suggest quite strongly that these are two different individuals.
Despite what the reading says, it’s perfectly possible that the white orca called ‘Iceberg’ by Russian scientists is in fact the same individual that was spotted earlier near Alaska.
For one thing, the exact color of an Orca’s skin can change a bit from season to season. The reason for this is algae. Algae are small plant organisms that grow on whale skin during some parts of the year. Algae growth would make white skin look a bit darker. The Alaskan sighting occurred during a different season than the Russian sighting, so if we take into account the seasonal variation in algae growth it could have been the same whale seen both times, only one time it was covered with more algae than the other time.
Second, about the distance problem. It’s important to know that Orca’s live in groups that have different lifestyles. Some groups hunt mammals, while other groups hunt fish. The mammal-eating Orcas tend to stay near coastlines and not migrate far, just like the reading said. However, scientists have determined that Iceberg belongs to a fish-hunting group. Fish-hunting Orcas follow migrating fish and can travel over 2000 kilometers in the open ocean, so it wouldn’t have been unusual for Iceberg to travel between Alaska and Russia.
Third, age estimates based on the size of the dorsal fin are not necessarily accurate. You see, after an Orca reaches 20 years of age its dorsal fin, doesn’t grow anymore, so when scientists see an Orca with a fully grown dorsal fin, that Orca could be 20 years old, but it could also be 25 or 30 years old, so Iceberg could easily have been older than the scientists estimated, which means it could have been the same Orca as the one seen in Alaska earlier.
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