6种基本故事类型 Six story types
1 从无到有型 Rags to riches, which is a continuous rise.
The story starts unhappy and gets happier, happier, happier, happier, happier, and has a lovely happy ending.
Charles Dickens的作品，Jane Austen的作品；The Ugly Duckling《丑小鸭》，《哈利波特1》Harry Potter I
2 破产型 Riches to rags, a continuous fall.
It starts happy, it gets sad, it gets sadder, it gets even sadder, and it ends in a very, very sad way.
Romeo and Juliet 《罗密欧与朱丽叶》；Doctor Strange《奇异博士》； Game of Thrones 《权力的游戏》的 部分故事
3 困境型 Man in hole, a fall and rise.
So the story starts with someone experiencing unhappiness, then happiness.
Rise, then fall.
Pride and Prejudice《傲慢与偏见》
Rise, then fall, then rise again.
Iron Man 《钢铁侠》等漫威作品
Fall, then rise, then fall again.
Artificial Intelligence Tells Us We Only Have Six Stories To Tell
A famous writer once said that all stories have shapes which can be drawn on graph paper. The same writer chalked out various story arcs on a blackboard, plotting how the protagonist's fortunes change over the course of the narrative on an axis stretching from 'good' to 'bad'. The arcs include 'man in hole', in which the main character gets into trouble then gets out again (people love that story, they never get sick of it!) and 'boy gets girl', in which the protagonist finds something wonderful, loses it, then gets it back again at the end.
Now, thanks to new digital text-mining techniques, researchers have analysed data from thousands of novels to reveal six basic story types – you could call them archetypes – that form the building blocks for more complex stories. The results tell us that whatever novel you're reading it's probably following one of only six common story shapes.
The researchers' focus was on theemotional trajectory of a story, not merely its plot. They did all this by training a machine to take all the words of a book, section by section, and measure the average happiness of a given set of words, and then work out the story shape. So what are these six story types? And how do you measure the 'happiness' of words?
1. chalk out sth.:
if you chalk out something, you write it in chalk on a blackboard.
The teacher chalked out the maths problem on the board.
In the lecture, the professor chalked out the solution on the board.
2. protagonist /prəˈtaɡ(ə)nɪst/: n. 主角
a main character in a story, a novel, a film or a play
The main story of the film is really about a protagonist on a journey around the world.
The protagonist in this famous children's novel is actually a cute little pixie.
3. fortunes change: 近义表达：a change of fortune
if your fortunes change, your luck changes / you go from being lucky to unlucky or unlucky to lucky.
The company's fortunes changed after they chose a new brand name.
The company experienced a change of fortune after they changed their brand name.
4. get sick of sth.: 反义表达：never get sick of
if you get sick of something, you have done/seen/heard it too many times, and it becomes boring and you begin to dislike it.
I'm sick of hearing that song. It's always on the radio. Now I really dislike that song.
I am sick of reading about Trump. I'm sick of seeing Trump's face in the news. I've seen so much of him. Now I dislike him.
I never get sick of hearing that song. I've heard it thousands of times, but I still love it.
注意：be sick of = be bored with; be sick from = become physically sick because of something; you want to vomit or throw up
5. text-mining: n. 文本挖掘
like data mining, getting information from texts (usually written texts)
6. archetype /ˈɑːkɪtʌɪp/: n. 形容词：archetypal /ˌɑːkɪˈtʌɪp(ə)l/ = classic / typical
a very typical example of something / a classic example
The book is a perfect archetype of the detective novel.
He is the archetype of the old-style company chairman.
The protagonist in the film is an archetypal English gentleman.
The Selected Short Fairy Tales of Oscar Wilde
The Young King (2 )
1）a Greek gem carved with the figure of Adonis（一块刻有阿多尼斯像的希腊宝石）
2）an antique statue inscribed with the name of the Bithynian slave of Hadrian（哈德良的俾斯尼亚国奴隶）
3）a silver image of Endymion（恩底弥翁的银像）
原视频标题：Deep-sea mining could transform the globe
pique the interest 激起兴趣
beat a path 开辟道路
rare earth elements 稀土元素
think about 考虑
goose bumps n. 鸡皮疙瘩 （在英语是“鹅”皮疙瘩，可能比较大吧）
例句：Whenever I think about him, I get goose bumps. 每当我想到他，我就起鸡皮疙瘩。