【每日笔记】006 故事皆有套路

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楼主 2019-10-11 09:54:21
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01

【YLYK】20180611  故事皆有套路



背景知识:

6种基本故事类型 Six story types

  • 美国佛蒙特大学的研究人员利用新的文本挖掘技术,分析了1700多部英文小说。在分析这些文本时,研究人员的重点是故事的情感轨迹,而非故事情节。他们将这些文本分成文本块,每个文本块包含1万个单词,然后分析其中的语言情感,最终得出故事整体的情感起伏。

  • 1 从无到有型 Rags to riches, which is a continuous rise.

    • The story starts unhappy and gets happier, happier, happier, happier, happier, and has a lovely happy ending.

    • Charles Dickens的作品,Jane Austen的作品;The Ugly Duckling《丑小鸭》,《哈利波特1》Harry Potter I

  • 2 破产型 Riches to rags, a continuous fall.

    • It starts happy, it gets sad, it gets sadder, it gets even sadder, and it ends in a very, very sad way.

    • Romeo and Juliet 《罗密欧与朱丽叶》;Doctor Strange《奇异博士》; Game of Thrones 《权力的游戏》的 部分故事

  • 3 困境型 Man in hole, a fall and rise.

    • So the story starts with someone experiencing unhappiness, then happiness.

    • Spiderman《蜘蛛侠》,X-man《X战警》

  • 4 伊卡洛斯型(Icarus)

    • Rise, then fall.

    • Pride and Prejudice《傲慢与偏见》

  • 5 灰姑娘型(Cinderella)

    • Rise, then fall, then rise again.

    •  Iron Man 《钢铁侠》等漫威作品

  • 6 俄狄浦斯型(Oedipus)

    • Fall, then rise, then fall again.

    • Shakespeare 莎士比亚的许多作品


文章:

  • Artificial Intelligence Tells Us We Only Have Six Stories To Tell

  • A famous writer once said that all stories have shapes which can be drawn on graph paper. The same writer chalked out various story arcs on a blackboard, plotting how the protagonist's fortunes change over the course of the narrative on an axis stretching from 'good' to 'bad'. The arcs include 'man in hole', in which the main character gets into trouble then gets out again (people love that story, they never get sick of it!) and 'boy gets girl', in which the protagonist finds something wonderful, loses it, then gets it back again at the end.

  • Now, thanks to new digital text-mining techniques, researchers have analysed data from thousands of novels to reveal six basic story types – you could call them archetypes – that form the building blocks for more complex stories. The results tell us that whatever novel you're reading it's probably following one of only six common story shapes.

  • The researchers' focus was on theemotional trajectory of a story, not merely its plot. They did all this by training a machine to take all the words of a book, section by section, and measure the average happiness of a given set of words, and then work out the story shape. So what are these six story types? And how do you measure the 'happiness' of words?


生词好句:

  • 1. chalk out sth.:

    • if you chalk out something, you write it in chalk on a blackboard.

    • The teacher chalked out the maths problem on the board.

    • In the lecture, the professor chalked out the solution on the board.

  • 2. protagonist /prəˈtaɡ(ə)nɪst/: n. 主角

    • a main character in a story, a novel, a film or a play

    • The main story of the film is really about a protagonist on a journey around the world.

    • The protagonist in this famous children's novel is actually a cute little pixie.

  • 3. fortunes change: 近义表达:a change of fortune

    • if your fortunes change, your luck changes / you go from being lucky to unlucky or unlucky to lucky.

    • The company's fortunes changed after they chose a new brand name.

    • The company experienced a change of fortune after they changed their brand name.

  • 4. get sick of sth.:  反义表达:never get sick of

    • if you get sick of something, you have done/seen/heard it too many times, and it becomes boring and you begin to dislike it.

    • I'm sick of hearing that song. It's always on the radio. Now I really dislike that song.

    • I am sick of reading about Trump. I'm sick of seeing Trump's face in the news. I've seen so much of him. Now I dislike him.

    • I never get sick of hearing that song. I've heard it thousands of times, but I still love it.

    • 注意:be sick of = be bored with; be sick from = become physically sick because of something; you want to vomit or throw up

  • 5. text-mining: n. 文本挖掘

    • like data mining, getting information from texts (usually written texts)

  • 6. archetype /ˈɑːkɪtʌɪp/: n. 形容词:archetypal /ˌɑːkɪˈtʌɪp(ə)l/ = classic / typical

    • a very typical example of something / a classic example

    • The book is a perfect archetype of the detective novel.

    • He is the archetype of the old-style company chairman.

    • The protagonist in the film is an archetypal English gentleman.



02

【原版阅读】



奥斯卡·王尔德短篇童话精选

The Selected Short Fairy Tales of Oscar Wilde

少年国王(2)

The Young King (2 )


背景知识

这一章花费了大量笔墨来描写王宫中的陈设,其中一些涉及到具体的历史典故:

1)a Greek gem carved with the figure of Adonis(一块刻有阿多尼斯像的希腊宝石)

阿多尼斯是希腊神话中有名的美男子,美神Aphrodite和冥后Persephone都对他青睐有加,然而阿多尼斯本人对异性并无好感。


2)an antique statue inscribed with the name of the Bithynian slave of Hadrian(哈德良的俾斯尼亚国奴隶)

这里说的是罗马皇帝哈德良的同性恋人安提诺乌斯。传说安提诺乌斯溺水而亡后,哈德良皇帝以他为原型,命工匠雕刻了许多雕塑,置于罗马帝国的各个角落。

(左为哈德良,右为安提诺乌斯)


3)a silver image of Endymion(恩底弥翁的银像)

关于恩底弥翁有不同版本的传说,诸如他是牧羊人、猎人或国王等,为月亮女神所爱慕,陷入永久的沉睡之中。


4)Narcissus:纳西瑟斯是希腊神话里的美少年,出生时其母亲得到神谕,说他会成为天下第一美男子,并因沉迷自己的美貌郁郁而终。为了不让他看到自己的容貌,母亲安排他在林间长大。长大后纵有无数少女爱慕,他都不屑一顾。月神阿提米丝(Artemis,一称复仇女神涅墨西斯Nemesis)决定惩罚他,引他到湖边看自己的倒影。结果他果真被自己的倒影深深吸引,最后跃入水中和自己的影像结合。据说后来他化作一株水仙花,所以水仙的英文便是narcissus。




03

一日译练



内容主题:海洋探矿 (我比较熟悉的领域)

原视频标题:Deep-sea mining could transform the globe

pique the interest 激起兴趣

beat a path 开辟道路

 rare earth elements 稀土元素



04

短 语



think about 考虑

goose bumps n. 鸡皮疙瘩 (在英语是“”皮疙瘩,可能比较大吧)

例句:Whenever I think about him, I get goose bumps每当我想到他,我就起鸡皮疙瘩。





英语学习笔记是我的日常练习整理,放在这里的主要目的是:

1 为大家提供学习素材

2 练习方法展示

3 学习毕竟是辛苦的,我们做个伴。


以往笔记:


【每日笔记】001 牛津剑桥知多少

【每日笔记】002 健康饮食新潮流:自噬延年

【每日笔记】003 炙烤星巴克:种族问题

【每日笔记】004 香格里拉对话

【每日笔记】005 日本动漫:你真的看懂了吗?



 

常用练习内容简介:

【每日新闻早餐】

来自YLYK(友邻优课)的同名栏目,每天推送和介绍一篇《经济学人》或《纽约时报》等主流媒体的短文


【原版阅读】

笔记来自扇贝读书营


【短语】

来自扇贝英语的炼句


【听写】

沪江听力酷


【新闻】

扇贝新闻


【一日译练】

来自公众号“theoneinterpreting”的每日交传练习,材料为1-1.5分钟的音频


                                

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