高中英语动词时态语态知识点详解

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楼主 2019-10-08 07:11:25
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汉语时态大多用副词来表达,而高中英语中的时态则是通过动词和时间状语的变化来表达的。高中英语中有16种时态,但只有9种时态经常被测试或常用,完成时态被测试。为了掌握英语的时态和语态,我们必须掌握高中英语中的助动词(do,be,had)和时间状语。
 


 

一般现在时

主要用来表示人、事物的现在状况和特点;表示经常或习惯性的动作,句子中常有often, always, from time to time 等时间状语;  表示客观规律和永恒真理等。
例句:
He usually goes to work at 7 o’clock every morning.
She has a brother who lives in New York.
The earth goes around the sun.
Guangzhou is situated in the south of China.
测试点1:表示永恒的真理,即使出现在过去的语境中,仍用一般现在时。
I learned that the earth goes around the sun when I was in  primary
school.
检查点2:在时间和条件状语从句中,代替一般将来时;常用的引导词有:
时间:when, until, after, before, as soon as, once, the moment/
the 一分钟,一天;
条件:if, unless, provided.
If he accepts the job, he will get  more money soon.
检查点三:在make sure (certain), see to it, mind, care, matter+宾语从句中,从句用一般现在时代替一般将来时。
So long as he works hard, I don’t mind when he  finishes the experiment.
只要他努力工作,我不介意他什么时候做完试验。
测试点4:在the more… the more… (越……越……) 的句型中, 若主句是一般将来时, 从句通常用一般现在时。
 

你越努力学习,你就会得到更好的结果。


现在进行时

表说话时或目前一段时间内正在进行的活动:表感情色彩,加强语气。与频率副词,如always,constantly,continually,again等连用表示说话人的某种感情色彩(赞叹、厌烦、埋怨等)。
例句:
We are having English class.
The house is being  built these days.
The little boy is always making  trouble.
测试点1:在时间状语或条件状语从句中表示将来正在进行的动作。 
Look out when you are crossing the street.
Don't wake him up  if he is still sleeping at 7 tomorrow morning.
检查点2:  表示在最近按计划或安排要进行的动作(这时多有表示将来的时间状语)。
 

星期五就要走了。


 

现在完成时

表示动作发生在过去,完成在过去,但强调与现在情况仍有联系,其结果或影响仍存在。
现在完成时有一些标志性的时间状语
测试点1:for + 时间段;since + 时间点
They have lived in Beijing for five years.
They  have lived in Beijing since 1995.
I have learned English for ten  years.
检查点2:常见的不确定的时间状语:lately; recently, just, already, yet,up to now; till now; so  far, these days,
Has it stopped raining yet ?
检查点三:在表示“最近几世纪/ 年/ 月以来……”时间状语中,谓语动词用现在完成时。
in the past few years/months/weeks/days;over the past few years; during the last three months; for the  last few centuries, through centuries; throughout history 等
测试点4:表示“第几次做某事,”或在 “It is the best (worst, most interesting ) +名词+that” 后面跟现在完成时。
This is my first time that I have visited China.
This is the most interesting film I have ever seen.
 

那是他写的唯一本书。


 

过去不定时

表在过去某个特定时间发生且完成的动作,或过去习惯性动作,不强调对现在的影响,只说明过去。常跟明确的过去时间连用,
如:yesterday; last week; in 1945, at that time; once; during the  war;
before; a few days ago; when
测试点1:used to + do,表示过去经常但现在已不再维持的习惯动作。
to为不定式,后接动词原形。
be/become/get used to + doing,表示习惯于。
He used to smoke a lot.
He has got used to getting up  early.
检查点2:在时间和条件状语从句中,代替过去将来时。
 

他答应如果加薪的话给我买台电脑。


 

过去进行时
 

表示过去某个时间点或某段时间内正在发生的动作。
例句:
The boy was doing his homework when his father came back from
work.
He was taking a walk leisurely by the lake when he heard someone
shouted for help.
What were you doing at nine last  night?
 

你打电话给我时,收音机正在修理。


过去完成时

表示过去某个时间之前已经完成的动作,即过去完成时的动作发生在“过去的过去”,句中有明显的参照动作或时间状语,这种时态从来不孤立使用
 ( before, after, by, up till )
例句:
There had been 25 parks  in our city up till 2000.
By the end of last term we had finished the  book.
They finished earlier than we had expected.
测试点1:用于hardly/scarcely...when; no sooner ...than 句型中,主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时。
I had hardly finished my work when he came to see me.
I had no sooner got into the room than it began to snow.
No sooner had I arrived home than the telephone rang. (注意主谓倒装)
检查点2:表示“第几次做某事”,主句用过去时,从句用过去完成时。
That was the second time that she had seen her  grandfather.
It was three years since we had parted.
检查点三:动词hope, expect, think, intend, mean, want, suppose, plan用过去完成时,表示未实现的愿望、打算和意图。
I had hoped that I could do the job.
 

我本想见你的,但我太忙了。


 

一般将来时态

 表在将来某个时间会发生的动作或情况。常和tomorrow, next year, in 2008等表示将来的时间状语连用,其表现形式多达5种。
例句:
Beijing will host the 29th Olympic Games in 2008.
测试点1:一般将来时总是用在一些时间状语从句或条件状语从句的主句中
We will begin our class as soon as the teacher  comes.
(主句用一般将来时,从句中一定要用一般现在时替代一般将来时。)
检查点2:某些表示短暂性动作的动词如arrive, come, go, leave, start等,用现在进行时形式表示将来。
I am leaving for Beijing tomorrow.
检查点三:“祈使句  + and/or + 句子”,这种结构中and后面的句子谓语用一般将来时。
Use your head and you will find a way.
测试点4:“am (is, are) going to + 动词原形”表示打算要做的事或可能要发生的事。
“am (is, are) about to +动词原形”表示按照预定计划或打算准备着手进行的动作。
“am (is, are) to + 动词原形”表示必须、必然或计划将要做的事。

他们将在今年五月结婚。


 

将来连续时态

 表将来某个时间正在发生的动作,或按计划一定会发生的事情。
例子:
明天这个时候我要做作业。
 

总统将在机场会见外国代表团。

未来完工时间

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